الرئيسية In the Early Hours: Reflections on Spiritual and Self Development

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How are we to become true believers who seek God's good pleasure? How are we to become mindful of God, to be thankful or worshipful? How are we to control our anger and pride? How are we to follow the example of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)? This inspirational book of wise advice answers these questions and guides us toward the spiritual life.Khurram Murad (1932–1996) was the director general of The Islamic Foundation, United Kingdom, and a renowned teacher who spent 40 years in the spiritual teaching and training of thousands of young Muslim people around the globe. He has published more than 20 works in English and Urdu.
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In the Early Hours: Reflections on Spiritual and Self Development (Khurram Murad)

Preface
THE title of this book, In the Early Hours, has been carefully and specifically chosen to highlight that precious but
often neglected time during the night that Allah is closest and most receptive to His servants. The Messenger of God
said:
Our Lord descends each night to the nearest Heaven when only the last third of the night remains, and says: `Is
anyone praying that I may answer him? Is anyone seeking forgiveness, that I may forgive him? Is anyone asking,
that I may give to him?', and this continues until dawn. (Tirmidhi.)
The later part of each night is the most conducive period for reflection and self development. It is the occasion with
the most potential for the heart to be present, alert and free of worldly concerns as the Quran declares: Lo! The vigil
of the night is [a time] when impression is more keen and speech more certain. [al-Muzzammil 73:6.]
This book is a collection of inspirational advice by a dear and beloved teacher, Ustadh Khurram Murad on the subject
of spiritual and self development. In it he sets out the goal of the Believer- the single-minded desire to seek the good
pleasure of Allah and Paradise. He then outlines the methods and instruments which must be used in the attainment
of that ultimate goal.
These spiritual exhortations that follow were originally delivered in those early hours of Summer 1993 just after Salat
al-Fajr as part of a course entitled Self Development for Islamic Workers at The Islamic Foundation, Leicester. That
course represented one of many similar courses Ustadh Khurram conducted for young Muslims, both male and
female. He recognised that it was in the young generation's eagerness, strength and enthusiasm that the future of
the Muslim Umma lay.
Each of the seven sections in this book represents one Nasiha or Advice. Each Nasiha was delivered in a presentation
of approximately 45 minutes. This time allotment was not, of course, sufficient for Ustadh Khurram to discuss;  the
subjects in detail. I have therefore drawn material from several of his other speeches and works for `thoroughness',
coherence and to provide clarity on the topics discussed. I have also added Quran and hadith references wherever I
felt they were relevant and added to the richness of the text. Only Allah knows how close I have come to making
clear the Message of the Quran and the Sunna as expressed by Ustadh Khurram.
Let me emphasise that this book merely represents an introduction to spiritual and self development. I hope that
each of the topics exposed here will lead you to further study so that you can continue to grow and progress along
the path of attaining closeness to Allah, our Lord and Master. A selection of suggested readings is given at the end of
this text to assist in further study.
The task of preparing this text has certainly been a challenge for me, but one, which I have enjoyed and benefited
from immensely. I am grateful to Muhammad Abdul Aziz, Alyasa Abdullah, Asim Abdullah, Sharifa Abdullah, Fazeela
Mollick, Wajid Mollick, Hashim Mohammed and Lucy Bushill-Matthews who all read the manuscript and offered
valuable comments and advice during the initial phase of this text's preparation. My deepest appreciation, however,
goes to Abdul Wahid Hamid, whose literary skills, advice and motivation were instrumental in finalising this work
Ultimately, though, any mistakes this book contains are my own - may Allah forgive me and have mercy on me.
Whatever good is derived from it, all praise is due to Him, for without His help and guidance, nothing is possible.
I would like to end with a dua or supplication of the Prophet which epitomises the sole objective of this work and our
goal in life:
O Allah, You change hearts, so change our hearts to be obedient to You. (Muslim.)
Riza Mohammed

Leicester, October 1999

CHAPTER ONE: The Process of Self Development

THE path to God is only illuminated when a person recognises the central place of God in his life and
strives to develop his self accordingly. The Messenger of God said:
If someone wants to know what position he enjoys in the eyes of God, he has only to look at what
place he gives to God (in his heart and life. (Hakim)
The term nearest in meaning to self development in the Quranic vocabulary is tazkiya. Tazkiya
means purification and refers to the cleansing of the human self from all that is unwholesome,
undesirable and unwelcome. It also refers to the nurturing and strengthening of all the qualities

within the human self that are essential for growth and development, for blossoming and flowering.

THE GOAL IN LIFE
Success and happiness in this world and the Hereafter depend on tazkiya, the purification and
nurturing of our personality. The Quran states that true success is only reserved for those who seek
to purify themselves:
Successful indeed is the one who purifies his whole self [ash-Shams 91:9]
Our personality comprises not only the physical body but also the mind and the heart, feelings and
attitudes, character and behaviour. Proper nurturing and development of these elements of the
personality will achieve desirable goals. When goals are desirable, the process of aspiring to,
working towards and achieving them also become desirable. This is part of human nature. It is
critical, therefore, that we recognise and understand the true nature of our ultimate goal in life.
For the Believer, the most coveted goal in life is to seek the good pleasure of Allah and Janna or
Paradise. Our Creator has set this goal for us: And surely Paradise - it is the goal [an-Naziat 79: 41];
Indeed the Next abode - it is truly the life! [al-Ankabut 29: 64]; The companions of Paradise - they
are the triumphant ones [al-Hashr 59: 20].
Know, however, that attaining the pleasure of Allah takes precedence over seeking Janna but the
two are closely connected. Paradise can only be attained through seeking Allah's pleasure, and when
Allah's pleasure is gained, we will indeed be granted Paradise. Reflect upon the following two verses
in the Quran:
And there is a kind of person who would willingly give up personal interests, seeking Allah's
pleasure; and God is Most Compassionate towards His servants.[al-Baqara 2: 207.]
Indeed Allah has purchased from the Believers their lives and their possessions, promising them
Paradise, in return. [at-Tawba 9: 111.]
The alternative to attaining Paradise in the Hereafter is to be placed in Jahannam or Hellfire and to
receive its punishments. The Quran states: But in the life to come: [it is either] severe suffering, or
God's forgiveness and His goodly acceptance. [al-Hadid 57: 20.] What is it that makes a person
deserving of such a suffering? The answer is to be found in the second part of the same verse: for
the life of this world is nothing but an enjoyment of self-delusion [al-Hadid 57: 20.] Jahannam
therefore, is for those who seek as their ultimate goal in life, not the pleasure of Allah or Paradise,
but the enjoyment of worldly gains.
The pursuit of worldly gain is but a mirage. All worldly gains are left behind when you die. All that is
on earth is bound to perish while Allah and His good favour will remain forever. It is for this reason
that the Queen advises:
Vie with one another in seeking to attain to your Sustainer's forgiveness; and to a Paradise as vast
as the heavens and the earth, which has been readied for those who have attained to faith in God
and His messengers: such is the bounty of Allah which He grants unto whomever He wills -for Allah
is limitless in His great bounty. [al-Hadid 57: 21.]
All your efforts in this world should therefore be focused only on seeking Paradise. It is the Promise

of the Almighty that:
You will only be rewarded fully for all your good deeds on the Day of Resurrection, and [on that Day]
whoever will be drawn away from Hellfire, and admitted into Paradise, will indeed have triumphed
[Ali Imran 3:185.]

THE FIRST STEP TO PARADISE
The first step in self development, then, is to concentrate single-mindedly on Paradise. Indeed, the
one who is unsure of his destiny in life, torn between this world and the Next, like one standing with
his feet in two separate boats - will be thrown off balance. Many of the difficulties that we face are
due to this lack of commitment and inability to focus on the real and ultimate goal. If you can keep
your focus on Janna, then everything else will be possible.
The selection of the ultimate goal of Paradise must be made consciously and may involve an
absolute break with the past. To choose this new goal as the ultimate goal in one's life is in fact to
choose a new life, to begin a new journey. Embark on this new journey by refreshing your wudu
(ablution) and offering two rakas (units) of Salat or Prayer reminding yourself of all the punishment
of Hellfire you have just resolved to avoid at all costs and all the rewards of Paradise that you will
strive to achieve. Remind yourself also of the important stations and landmarks on the journey;
imagine death as near; imagine the moment when the Angel of Death will declare, `your time is
over, now you must follow me'; imagine that moment when you will be made to stand in the
presence of Allah, Most High, so that the final judgment of life may be passed on you and imagine
the consequences of that judgment. When you have completed the two rakas then resolve once
more that all efforts will be directed towards achieving Paradise, beseech Allah and pray with
humility:
O Allah, I ask for Your mercy and whatever brings me closer to it, in word and deed.
O Allah, I ask for a faith that will never vanish, a blessing that will never diminish, a pleasure that
will never abate, and the most elevated position in Paradise distinguished by the companionship of
Your Messenger, Muhammad.
While improvement in your habits and actions is a life-long process, the desire to achieve it can thus
be sparked in a moment. This desire will provide the momentum for attaining your goal - the good
pleasure of Allah and Paradise.

YOUR MISSION
Having taken the fast step and resolved to attain Paradise, you may ask yourself, what does Allah
require from me in order for me to succeed?
What Allah requires of you, in Quranic vocabulary, is for you to be a mumin and mujahid. A mumin
is one who is true and firm in his faith in God. A mujahid is one who strives his utmost, with all the
means at his disposal, to gain God's pleasure. If you are a mumin and a mujahid, Allah, the Most
Exalted in Power and yet the Most Compassionate, will assist you to rise to higher stations both in
this world and in the Hereafter. Allah has promised this to those who possess the qualities of iman or
faith and the active resolve for jihad or struggle. The Quran states:
The believers are only those who believe in Allah and His Apostle then they doubt not and struggle
hard with their wealth and their lives in the way of Allah; they are the truthful ones. [al-Hujurat
49:15]
You now have a mission: to become a mumin and mujahid. As you embark upon this mission you
may come to feel that your knowledge of Islam is somewhat limited or perhaps that you are unable
to attain those heights of submission and purification that you desire or others expect of you. This is
only natural. You must not, however, allow these feelings of personal shortcomings to undermine
your efforts to practise Islam. Remember that Islam is a state of becoming not a state of being. Each
day you must strive to improve and better yourself - and you will improve.
Tazkiya or this new programme for self-improvement that you now find yourself in, is a process that
unfolds itself step by step. You cannot expect to change all at once. This is against the laws of
nature. The Prophet was always aware of this when he was dealing with his Companions. Whenever
someone embraced Islam, the Prophet would not ask that person to do everything immediately.
Instead, he would teach and expect that person to start fulfilling his obligations only as much as he
could bear at a time. This gradual process of change is also clearly reflected in the manner in which
the Quran was revealed over a period of 23 years. In all your efforts towards becoming a better
Believer, you must bear in mind this principle of gradualism, otherwise you may try to attain the
impossible, and when you do not achieve it, you may become frustrated.
At this stage, what matters most is that your bargain with Allah, iman, remains sound and firm. This
definition of iman is perhaps a little different from the definition you usually hear. It is, however, a
definition that we find in the Quran [at-Tawba 9: 111]. Furthermore, attainment of such iman,
allows you to be counted among the true and sincere servants in the eyes of your Lord. The Quran
states:
Behold, God has bought of the Believers their lives and their possessions, promising them Paradise
in return, they fight in God's cause, and slay, and are slain: a promise which in truth He has willed
upon Himself in the Tawra, and the Injil, and the Quran. And who could be more faithful to his
covenant than God? [at-Tawba 9: 111]
Once you have committed yourself to Allah, all that you have must be spent in His way. This is the
ideal. Ideals, however, are always difficult to achieve - and this you must understand and accept.
Ideals are always to be pursued; if they are easily and always achievable, they can hardly remain as
ideals. Keeping to your side of the bargain then, is an ideal that you must always seek to maintain.
It is this seeking and this striving to spend all that we have in the way of Allah that is known as jihad

and alternatively, in this instance, as tazkiya.

PREREQUISITES OF TAZKIYA
As you proceed on your journey along the new path, in quest of the ultimate goal of Paradise, you
will encounter difficulties and hardships. These may often seem insurmountable. Overcoming them
may be made easier by a good early grasp of the prerequisites of tazkiya. These are as follows:

1. Tazkiya -Your Personal Responsibility
You must accept that tazkiya is a highly personal process and that it demands taking personal
responsibility for carrying it forward. You can only see the results of tazkiya through your own
realisation, your own personal efforts and your own exertions. No one else can perform tazkiya for
you. No organisation, no leader and no teacher can replace your own responsibility. God says: And
no bearer of burdens shall be made to bear another's burden; and if one weighed down by his load
calls upon [another] to help bear carry it nothing thereof may be carried [by that other], even if it be
one's near of kin. [al-Fatir;5:18 ] This sense of personal responsibility is basic to the whole purpose
and approach of Islam. Ultimately, we are judged individually for discharging our own
responsibilities. If someone else fulfils your obligations, then it should be he that is rewarded, not
you. To be rewarded you must do what is expected of you by Allah by yourself:
Whoever strives hard in God's cause does so only for his own good: for, verily, God does not stand
in need of anything in all the worlds! And as for those who attain to faith and do righteous deeds,
We shall most certainly efface their bad deeds, and shall most certainly reward them in accordance
with the best that they ever did. [al-Ankabut 29: 6-7.]
Some people allow themselves to be dictated by others. The Quran states that the weak will say on
the Day of judgment that they were coerced into following the dictates of others, but that Allah will
reply that the excuse is not legitimate for the decision to deviate from the Straight Path was their
own. [Qaf 50: 26-28]. Even Shaytan will stand up on the Day of Judgment saying: ‘I invited you and
you responded to me, so don't blame me, blame yourselves.' [Ibrahim 14: 22] Ultimately, then, the
blame and the reward will be yours, because the responsibility was yours:
On that Day all people will come forward, cut off from one another, to be shown their deeds. And so,
he who shall have done an atom's weight of good, shall behold it; and he who shall have done an
atom's weight of evil, shall behold it. [az-Zalzala 99: 6-8.]
Taking charge of your own affairs may certainly seem a daunting task, but one which you will
accomplish with distinction if you appreciate and take advantage of the tremendous human potential
that Allah has blessed you with. Allah says in the Quran:
Verily, We created man in the best conformation, and thereafter We reduced him to the lowest of
the low - excepting only such as attain to faith and do good works: and theirs shall be a reward
unending! [at Tin 95: 4-6.]
Tazkiya does not consist simply of ideas, but of life, behaviour and conduct. The key to success,
according to the Quran, lies in having true faith. To inculcate true faith you must start by acquiring a
sound knowledge of Islam through a dedicated study of the Quran and Sunna. You must then
translate your knowledge into practice. For this to occur, you need to have firm resolve and
determination. This, in turn, will produce amal salih or righteous conduct.

To aid you in your task, you must seek the company of those who are also striving to please Allah.
They will encourage you towards righteousness and correct you when you deviate from the true
Path. Your company also includes your mental and psychological company- the ideas you entertain,
the ambitions you nurture, the sensitivities and sensibilities you develop and the books you read. All
of these represent a form of company because they are your companions in solitude.

2. Genuine Effort
In order to succeed, you must have a deep desire to make a genuine effort to fulfill your obligations
as a Muslim:
But as for those who strive hard in Our cause - We shall most certainly guide them onto paths that
lead unto Us: for, behold God is indeed with the doers of good. [al-Ankabut 29: 69.]
With desire, of course, come actions. But know that it is not solely the results of your endeavours
that count; what matters most is that you made your best effort. This is a very important point to
appreciate because without genuine effort nothing can happen. Those who think that Prayer alone
can work miracles are not living in a realistic world. Prayers are part of the effort, but Prayers are
not the whole answer. If you pray, `Allah! Guide me and make me good', it is not going to bring you
any benefit unless you are also determined to become good and make an effort towards becoming
good. Once you have done the latter two things, then, of course, Prayer will be a source of baraka or
Divine grace that will further inspire and strengthen your efforts. The initial desire and the ensuing
effort to do and become good, is part of the continuing process of self development, a process that
may begin at any point in life that you choose and continue till your last breath:
O you who have attained to faith! Be conscious of Allah with all the consciousness that is due to Him,
and do not allow, death to overtake you until you have surrendered yourselves unto Him. [Ali Imran
3: 102.]
There will never be a point when you will be able to say that you are now a perfect person or that
you have achieved your full potential. If at any point you feel so, then be sure that is the starting
point of your downfall, On the other hand, you may find that the greater your desire to fulfill your
obligations as a Muslim, the more you feel beset or plagued by frustration, despondency and despair
in your heart and mind. All of us, whether young or old, have experienced these diseases, and often
just give up. What we should try to remember at such times is that it is the intention and effort that
matters, not the result. This effort must be a continuing process:
Be not, then, faint of heart, and grieve not: for you are bound to rise high if you are believers. [Ali
Imran 3: 139]

3. Sustaining Willpower
To achieve the ultimate goal in life requires a sustained determination to do so, a willpower that is
forever responsive and strong. In Quranic terminology this is called irada. Irada is basic to all our
efforts. Without willing to do something you cannot do anything.
Irada is very different from desire. You always hear people reflecting upon unfulfilled aspirations.
One of the main reasons why aspirations and dreams remain unfulfilled is that they are no more
than desires which faded to assume the status of irada.
The Quran explains that one of the basic weaknesses in human nature which impedes self
development is the weakness of will. While narrating the story of Adam, Allah informs:

And, indeed, long ago We made Our covenant with Adam; but he forgot and We found no firmness
of purpose in him. [Ta Ha 20:115]
Irada requires strength and consistency and is indeed the antithesis of doubt, hesitation or lethargy.
Once irada is firmly in place, then you must have no doubts and you must not hesitate.
Now, what purpose should irada serve? The Quran makes it clear that this will power must be a firm
resolve to seek the pleasure of Allah because this is the part of the bargain that you must deliver:
And whoever desires [arada] the Life to Come, and strive for it as it ought to be striven for, and are
[true] Believers withal-they are the ones whose striving finds favour [with God]. [al-Isra 17: 19]

4. Reliance on Allah
Self-confidence is borne from the Believer's intimate knowledge and understanding that Allah is ever
ready to assist those who strive and struggle in His way. Self-confidence comes from depending
upon Allah and knowing that He is there to help you, protect you and shower His mercies upon you:
So he who gives [in charity] and fears [Allah] and [in all sincerity] testifies to the best- We will
indeed make smooth for him the path to Bliss. [al-Layl 92: 5-7.]
Self-confidence also emanates from knowing that Allah in His infinite mercy has equipped you with
all that you require to undertake the tasks set before you. It is not characteristic of the One that is
Most Just and Most Merciful to prepare you for a duel without equipping you with the necessary
tools.
Self-confidence is thus borne of total reliance and trust in Allah. It is knowing that at every step of
your journey Allah is there assisting you. If you constantly hold yourself back believing that you are
weak and incapable and blame your incompetence on minor inadequacies, then you are bound to
fail. You must never allow yourself to believe or feel that Allah has treated you unfairly or that He
has placed upon you a burden you cannot shoulder for on no soul does Allah place a burden greater
than it can bear. [al-Baqara 2:286.]
Likewise, hope is central to your efforts and your success. You must sincerely hope and believe that
everything you do to earn the pleasure of Allah will lead you to fulfillment. A superiority complex
negates the task of self development. An inferiority complex is derived from a lack of confidence in
Allah and oneself. You should never allow yourself to believe that you cannot fulfill your obligations
nor should you despair of the mercy of Allah. Confidence, hope and determination are all important
ingredients for your success:
Those unto whom men said: Lo! the people have gathered against you, therefore fear them. But it
only increased them in faith and they cried.. Allah is sufficient for us! Most Excellent is He in Whom
we trust! [Ali Imran 3: 173-174]
You must be wary, however, of the kind of self-confidence that causes a person to proclaim himself
self-sufficient. Modern concepts of self sufficiency are indeed an evil form of shirk or polytheism. To
ascribe self-sufficiency to one's self is to assume for oneself an attribute reserved only for Allah. For
the Muslim, self-confidence is wholly dependent upon the trust one places in Allah; it is not an
arrogant proclamation of complete independence from Allah. Allah alone is self-Sufficient. All else is
reliant upon Him for existence.

5. The Best Use of Time
Time is not money or gold; it is life and it is limited. You must begin to appreciate every moment of
your life and always strive to make the best use of it. With all the demands of worldly life on your
time, you will yet need to find time for self-development and maximise its potential. The better route
towards self-development is, of course, to integrate all your efforts into a structured daily life. Imam
al-Ghazali, may God have mercy on him, in his great work, Ihya Ulum ad Din, gives the following

advice:
You should structure your time, arrange your regular devotions and assign to each function a set
period of time during which it is given first priority but which it does not overstep. For if you
abandon yourself to neglect and purposelessness, as cattle do, and just do anything that may occur
to you at any time it happens to occur to you, most of your time will be wasted. Your time is your
life, and your life is your capital; it is the basis of your transactions [with God], and the means to
attain to everlasting felicity, in the proximity of God the Exalted. Each of your breaths is a priceless
jewel, and when it passes away it never returns.
Remember also that `the deeds most loved by Allah [are those] done regularly, even if they are
few.' (Bukhari, Muslim.) While you must always strive to make the best use of your time, you must
always aim for excellence in everything you undertake, whether at school, at home, at work or at
play. Indeed, the Prophet has said, `Verily Allah has prescribed ihsan (proficiency and excellence) in
all things. (Muslim.)

6. Tazkiya -All-embracing Process.
Islam does not subscribe to the type of asceticism where we purify our hearts and yet remain
immersed in political, economic or social corruption. Tazkiya must encompass our entire life - the
privacy of our thoughts as well as their social manifestations in our daily life. Everything must be in
conformity with Allah's will.
This will of God also requires you to seek and maintain a delicate balance between the various
obligations that demand your attention; between your obligations to Allah, your obligations towards
others and your obligations towards yourself The Prophet advised us against extremism of any kind.
It is reported that he said to Abdullah ibn Amr:
`Have I heard right that you fast everyday and stand in prayer all night?' Abdullah replied, `Yes, O
Messenger of God.' The Prophet said, `Do not do that. Fast, as well as eat and drink. Stand in
prayer, as well as sleep. For your body has a right upon you, your eyes have a right upon you, your
wife has a right upon you, and your guest has a right upon you.' (Bukhari, Muslim.)
Unless you approach tazkiya as an all-embracing process, you will find that your life is
compartmentalized, certain parts impeding the development of others. This can only result in a life
of disharmony and unhappiness. Approached as a comprehensive and all-embracing process,
however, you will find that each part of your life will complement some other part. This should, God
willing, make your struggle on the path to God and Janna, easier and full of grace.
As you struggle to make headway on the path to God, always remember that you have an excellent
example before you. This is the example of the Prophet Muhammad, may God bless him and grant
him peace. Often we would like to emulate our sports heroes, our parents, our teachers, our friends
or others who attract our attention. For your spiritual development, however, the most beautiful
example is that of the Prophet. Allah says in the Quran:
You have, indeed, in the Messenger of God an excellent exemplar, whoever places his hopes in God
and the Final Days and who remembers Allah much. [al-Ahzab 33: 21]

BLESSINGS AND BENEFITS
The decision to purify and develop yourself requires that you clearly define the path and consider the
ways and means to achieve Paradise. This whole process will not only purify your heart, but also
affect your entire life and the will of Allah will become so much easier for you to follow. Following the
Divine Will is, of course, tazkiya itself, Soon, all your efforts will be directed towards the ultimate
goal - the pleasure of Allah and Paradise.
Know that every sin can be effaced through forgiveness, and forgiveness is a sure way to Paradise.
As you strive to better yourself, then, simultaneously and continuously pray for forgiveness for all
your shortcomings. God says: And whoever repents and believes and works righteous deeds, God
changes evil deeds into good ones, and God is Ever-Forgiving, Merciful. [al-Furqan 25:70]
It is a misconception to believe that simply by setting up Paradise as the ultimate goal, one can get
there without any further effort. It is also a misconception that Paradise can solely be achieved by
concentrating only on certain aspects of life, the `religious and the spiritual'. The very fact that
Paradise is the ultimate objective means that tazkiya must be pursued in all aspects of life, and in
life as a whole. Consider, for example, the following:

-Is not honesty a means to enter Paradise?
-Will not a sense of responsibility enable me to enter Paradise?
-Will not striving to fulfill the needs of fellow human beings make me deserve Paradise?
-Will not abstaining from vain talk and aimless actions, bring me closer to Paradise?
-Is not consciousness of the best use of my time a key to Paradise?
-Will not keeping promises and offering Salat on time, which are distinguishing traits of the righteous, put me on the highway
to Paradise?

-Must not all of the above be sought to attain Paradise?
Every effort that is legitimate and is aimed at attaining Paradise is also an integral part of the
process of tazkiya
Insha Allah (God-willing), if you take heed of all the prerequisites, blessings and benefits of tazkiya,
you will surely find the right environment, the true companionship and brotherhood and the most
appropriate training programmes to make the task of self development easier and more rewarding.
So give the good news to My servants who listen to the word [of God], then follow the beauty in it.
Such are they whom God has guided And such are they who are endowed with understanding. [azZumar 39: 17-18.]

SUMMARY
The most comprehensive goal for a Muslim is the single-minded desire to attain Paradise. This desire
to seek Paradise is a life-long process which can be sparked in a moment- and this desire will
provide the means and the momentum to reach the goal.
Your model for self-development is that of the Prophet Muhammad. In your quest for Paradise, you
must personally take charge of your responsibilities, develop the willpower to perform and make a
genuine effort to fulfill your obligations, ensure that you make the best use of your time and adopt a
balanced approach to life.
Remember that every effort that is legitimate and is aimed at attaining Paradise is also an integral
part of the process of tazkiya and that every sin can be effaced through forgiï&H§ss - and that
forgiveness is the sure way to Paradise. And as for the one who fears to stand before his Lord and
who restrains himself from base desires, the Garden is surely the abode. [an-Naziat 79: 40-41]
May Allah enable us to be among those who purify themselves for it is God Who causes whomever
He wills to grow in purity; and none shall be wronged by as much as a hair's breath [an-Nisa 4: 49].
Were it not for God's favour upon you and His grace, not one of you would ever have remained pure.
For it is God who causes whomever He wills to grow in purity: for God is all-Hearing all-Knowing [anNur 24: 21.]

CHAPTER TWO: A Life of Remembrance

IN a verse of the Quran that I love very much, Allah, Most Gracious and Loving, commends:
Remember Me and I shall remember you. Be grateful unto Me and deny Me not. [al-Baqara 2:152.]
Can you imagine a more gratifying state than this, where, when you remember Allah, the Creator,
Sustainer and Lord of the Universe, He remembers you in return? The same exhortation has been
beautifully conveyed in a hadith qudsi:
I treat My servant as he hopes that I would treat him. I am with him whenever he remembers Me: if
he remembers Me in his heart, I remember him in My `heart'; if he remembers Me in a gathering, I
remember him in a gathering far better than that gathering; if he draws near to Me a hand's span, I
draw near to him an arm's length; if he draws near to Me an arm's length, I draw near to him a
fathom's length; and if he comes to Me walking, I go to him running. (Bukhari, Muslim)
Those who remember Allah standing, sitting and reclining and who reflect on the creation of the
heavens and the earth are highly commended in the Noble Quran. They are wise in that they fill
their hearts with the remembrance of God in every, moment, in every circumstance and in every
posture of their lives. [Ali Imran 3: 191]
The exhortation to remember Allah at all times is a reflection of Allah's all-embracing and
overwhelming love for us. The door to Allah is always open to us: Remember Me and 1 will
remember you. We need only find our way to and through that door.

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF DHIKR
Regarding the significance of dhikrullah or the remembrance of God, Allah says in the Quran, itself
the ultimate reminder (dhikr) to all the worlds [Sad 38: 87], the following:
Remember Allah. for He has guided you. [al-Baqara 2:198.]
O you who believe! Remember Allah often with much remembrance. And glorify Him morning and
evening. [Luqman 31: 41-42.]
And men who remember God much and women who remember - God has prepared for them
forgiveness and a vast reward. [al-Ahzab 33: 35 ]
Hadith literature is similarly replete with references to the remembrance of Allah:
The servant cannot perform a better deed which will save him from God's punishment than the
remembrance of God. (Malik.)
Whoever wishes to feast in the gardens of Paradise, let him remember God often. (Tirmidhi.)
Indeed, with regard to dhikr, the Quran concludes: And the remembrance of Allah is the greatest
deed without doubt. [al-Ankabut 29:45]
The significance of dhikr lies in the fact that it is God's own chosen and recommended mode by
which the muminun or Believers show gratitude for having been shown the straight path. In
addition, it is indeed the surest way of attaining God's forgiveness and achieving the ultimate reward
of Paradise.
The importance of dhikr then is not difficult to understand. It is dhikr that purifies your qalb or heart
and makes it sound. And you can only attain salvation and true success by having a pure and sound
heart.
The qalb or `heart' referred to here is not the pump in your breast that pushes blood around your
body but rather the centre or locus of your personality which pumps out your desires and
motivations and which makes you conduct yourself as you do. It is this qalb that lies at your centre
and dictates your actions which is the key to your ultimate success. Thus, with reference to the Day
of Judgment, the Quran declares:
[It will be a Day) when neither wealth nor children shall profit [and when] only he [will be saved]
who comes before God with a sound heart [free of evil]. [ash-Shuara 26:88-89.]
This point is more elaborately made in a hadith in which the Prophet says:
Listen [to me] carefully. There is a lump of flesh in the body - if it is set right and made good, the
entire body becomes good and healthy; but if it becomes diseased, the entire body becomes
diseased. Remember well - it is the Heart. (Bukhari.)
If the heart is the key to ultimate salvation and success, it may, likewise, be the seat of much
corruption and open doors to many evils. It may facilitate the corruption of political and economic

activities and ultimately the social institutions of a society. Where such a state prevails, the Quran
suggests that it is because people, individually, have become diseased in their hearts. [al-Baqara
2:10.] In this state, people stop seeing and doing what is right. The Quran explains that this is not
because they have become blind in their eyes but because their hearts have become blind. [al-Hajj
22: 46.] This blindness only draws them nearer to the ultimate chastisement.
It is the heart, as the decider of our ultimate fate, that must then be the starting point of any tazkiya
programme, to purify this heart and then summon it to the service of mankind.
Ibn al-Qayyim, one of the great scholars of Islam, states in his Kitab al Adhkar (The Book of
Remembrance), that 'the heart which is devoid of the remembrance of Allah is a heart that is dead';
it is dead even and long before the body carrying the heart reaches its grave. Indeed, this living
body that carries the heart is the heart's grave. Ibn al-Qayyim's statement is reminiscent of the
hadith of tire Prophet which states: `The difference between someone who remembers His Lord and
someone who does not is like the difference between the living and the dead.' (Bukhari.) The
statement is also reminiscent of the following verse of the Quran: Do not become like those who
forget Allah and Allah makes them forget themselves. It is they who are truly deprived. [al-Hashr
59:19.]
The purpose of tazkiya is to ensure that the heart never falls into a sorry state of being and that it is
always alive with the remembrance of God. Prosperous indeed is one who purifies himself and
remembers the name of His Guardian-Lord, and prays [unto Him]. [al-Ala 87: 14-15.] The Prophet
further emphasised the importance of dhikr when he said to his Companions: 'Shall I not inform you
of the best of your actions, the purest in the sight of your Lord, which raises your rank to the
highest, which is better for you than spending gold and silver, better than meeting your enemy so
that you strike at their necks and they strike at yours?' They replied: 'Yes, indeed,' and he said: 'It is
the remembrance of Allah.' (Tirmidhi.)
Strive then, to fill all your moments, all your thoughts and all your actions with His remembrance.
Recite tasbih or words of glorification and praise to punctuate all your actions and achievements.

THE MEANING OF DHIKR
What is the precise meaning of 'dhikr'? What is its scope and what does it entail? Does it simply
involve certain utterances of the tongue, like Subhanallah (I glorify Allah's absolute perfection),
Alhamdu lillah (All praise be to Allah), Allahu Akbar (Allah is the Greatest), La ilaha illallah (There is
no god but Allah) and the recitation of some other selected verses of the Quran, or is there more to
it? Of course, such utterances of the tongue and recitation of verses of the Quran are important. In
fact they are very important forms of dhikr for, indeed, the best forms of remembrance are those
that involve both the heart and the tongue. You must understand, however, that the scope of dhikr
is considerably wider.
Dhikr must not only be felt by the heart and uttered with the tongue, but must also affect and effect
amal salih, or good deeds. Significantly, Ibn al-Qayyim suggests that dhikr encompasses `any and
every particular moment when you are thinking, saying or doing things which Allah likes: Hence, if
your conversation is filled with the words of God, this is dhikr and if all your actions are in
accordance with His will, this is dhikr. Indeed Allah commends that we remember Him while
standing, sitting and even while reclining. This is only possible if dhikr embraces every single aspect
of life. Consider for example the following verse of the Quran where dhikr is emphasised in both
Prayer and business activity:
O Believers, when the call to Payer is sounded on the Day of Congregation, hasten to Allah's
remembrance and leave all worldly commerce. This a for your own good, if you but knew . And when
the Prayer it finished then disperse through the land, and seek of the bounty of Allah; and remember
Allah frequently that you may prosper. [al-Jumua 62:9-10]
Attending the Salat al-jumua, listening to the khutba or sermon and performing the congregational
Prayer are all well known as forms of dhikr. But in our worldly pursuits as well we are urged to
remember Allah even more often.
We may thus conclude, that attending to your personal needs, earning a livelihood and spending on
your family are all forms of dhikr. But of course, they can only be dhikr if, alongside with the
relevant adhkar or supplications in the heart and on the tongue, they are done in obedience to Allah,
for His pleasure, to attain Janna. Otherwise, as the Quran warns us, far from being dhikr, they may
have the opposite effect:
Let not your worldly possessions and your children make you neglectful of Allah's remembrance. But
spend in the way of Allah. [al-Munafiqun 63:9-10.]

THE METHODS OF DHIKR
We have thus far discussed the significance, meaning and scope of dhikr. Let us now turn to the
various forms and methods of dhikr. How do we remember Allah in the morning and evening, during
the day and at night and while standing, sitting or reclining.' There are basically two forms of dhikr.
The first involves continuous and sustained inner awareness of Allah in all that we say and do in our
daily lives. The second involves mechanisms, whether performed individually or collectively, that
help to develop the first.

1. Sustained Awareness of Allah
Let us begin with a discussion of the first form and its methods. How can you remember Allah
throughout the normal course of your day without withdrawing from the routine of your daily worldly
life? How can you ensure that your personal life, family life, professional life and other activities all
continue in full swing, and yet, at the same time, ensure that your life as a whole - every moment of
it - is permeated with remembrance of Allah? Such an all-pervading dhikr can be an onerous task,
but one you can accomplish - with some ease. Let me remind you of four states of consciousness
that you must strive to develop by remembering certain things, absorbing them and reminding
yourself of them often.

ONE: Say to yourself: I am in Allah's presence; He is watching me.: Say to yourself: I
am in Allah's presence; He is watching me.
If ever you are alone, He is the second and that if you are two, He is the third. He is with you
wherever you are. [al-Mujadala 58: 7.] He is nearer to you than your-jugular vein. [Qaf 50: 16-18.]
He is watching everything that you do and hearing everything that you say. He is ever present and
His knowledge is all encompassing. Remind yourself of this as often as you can, and throughout the
day- every time you begin a new task, and every time you speak. Indeed, your aim should be to
impress this on your heart in such a way that it ultimately becomes your very breath. When the
Prophet was asked by a Companion about the best method of purifying himself, he replied: `You
should always remember that Allah is with you wherever you are.' (Tirmidhi.)

TWO: Say to yourself: Everything I have has been given to me by Allah.
All that there is - surrounding you, on you and in you - comes from Allah alone. There is none that
creates or gives anything but Allah. [an-Nahl 16:78; Ya Sin 36:33-35.] Therefore, reflect upon all
the baraka or blessing that He has created you with and be thankful to Him. In all the adhkar that
the Prophet has taught us, hamd or gratefulness to Allah is a constant theme. Many of these adhkar
are simple to learn, and indeed, it was the most simple of his adhkar that he used most frequently.
When the Prophet rose in the morning, he would say Alhamdu lillah; whenever he ate or drank he
would say Alhamdu lillah; and even when he relieved himself he would give thanks to Allah. Learn as
many of the adhkar as you can, and throughout the day, as you witness all that Allah has blessed
you with, punctuate your day with these adhkar.
If ever you appear to be short of things to be thankful for, recall the hadith of the Prophet: `There
are 360 joints in the body and for each joint you must give a sadaqa [thanks or charity] each day.'
(Bukhari.) You must give a sadaqa for each one of them because without any one of them you will
be incomplete and handicapped. You must do this on a daily basis for should any one of them

become damaged one day, you will similarly become incapacitated.
Additionally, you may remind yourself that, as we now know from our knowledge of human
physiology, your heart beats 72 times a minute. Every time it beats, it does so with the permission
of Allah. The moment He withdraws that permission, the heart will stop beating and your life will
certainly come to an end. If you feel that there is nothing else to thank Allah for, then thank him for
the life that He has given you - for, so long as there is life, there is hope.

THREE: Say to yourself: Nothing in this world can happen without His permission.
Everything lies in the hands of Allah. No harm can befall you and no benefit can reach you except as
Allah ordains. It is as the Quran informs us: If God should touch you with misfortune, none can
remove it but He, and if He should touch you with good fortune, He has power over all things. He
alone holds sway over His creatures; He is the All-wise, the All-aware. [al-Anam 6: 17-18.]
The Prophet Muhammad would supplicate to Allah after each Prayer:
O Allah, whatever You want to give me, no one can stop it from coming to me and whatever You
want to prevent from coming to me, nobody can give to me.
Prayer after Prayer, you should recite these beautiful words. And beyond that, remind yourself as
much as you can and throughout the day, especially as you expect something to happen, or not to
happen, that everything happens only as He commands, and by His permission.

FOUR: Say to yourself: I am going to return to Allah one day and that day could be
today.
You do not know when you will leave this world. It may be that the coming morning is your last
morning, or perhaps the coming evening is your last evening. Indeed, it may be that this hour is
your last hour, or even, that this moment is your last moment. Such an uncertainty does not, of
course, justify a complete withdrawal from this life so as to prepare for the Next in some monastic
fashion. It is important, however, that you are always conscious of this uncertainty, to the extent
that it motivates you to spend every moment of your remaining life seriously, considering it as a gift
from Allah and spending the resources He has blessed you with - time, ability and energy - as He
has advised. Then, and only then, will your life have achieved what is required of it, and your return
will achieve what is required of it. To help you attain this state of consciousness, recall and reflect
upon the following Quranic verse as much as you can and throughout the day: from Allah we came
and to Him we shall return. [al-Baqara 2:156]
These are the four states of consciousness that can help us achieve a life completely devoted to the
remembrance of Allah. To try to reach these four states simultaneously, and with sincerity, can only
purify you. To try in a determined fashion to reach these four states will lead you inevitably to
Paradise.

2. Specific Methods of Dhikr
For us to achieve a continuous and sustained awareness of Him, Allah, in His Wisdom and Mercy, has

taught us some very specific mechanisms of dhikr. These include: the formal ibada-Salat, Sawm,
Zakat and Hajj; tilawa of the Quran, dua, istighfar and tawba, seeking the company of the righteous
and dawa. Together these mechanisms or methods constitute what we have classified above as the
second form of dhikr, but here we may sub-divide them into two groups: those that can be
performed individually and those that are performed collectively.

3. Methods of Individual Dhikr
The foremost of the specific methods pertaining to individual dhikr include the fard or obligatory
ibada. Allah has said in a hadith qudsi:
My servant does not draw near to Me with anything more loved by Me than what I have made
obligatory. (Bukhari.)
Each specific formal ibada or act of servitude to God, has been ordained as an instrument of self
development. When we observe our Salat regularly at the proper times, together in congregation
whenever possible, with clear intentions and sincerity; when we fast in the month of Ramadan with
awareness and resolve; when we give Zakat as soon as it falls due with a generous heart; and when
we fulfill the obligations of Hajj as soon as we have the means, we will gain that special closeness to
Allah that He has promised. Indeed, we may get even closer to God through additional observance
of these specific formal acts of servitude, for Allah continues in the hadith qudsi:
My servant continues to draw nearer to Me with additional devotions until I love him. When I love
him, I become the hearing with which he hears, the sight with which he sees, the hand with which
he strikes and the foot with which he walks. Were he to ask for something I would surely give it, and
were he to ask for refuge, I would surely grant him refuge. (Bukhari.)
For each specific fard ibada, there is an additional nafl or superogatory equivalent. These are as
follows:

-The Sunna Salat - these include the additional Prayers before and after the five obligatory ones, but just as importantly the
Tahajjud Prayer.

-The Sunna Fasts - as recommended by the Prophet and to be practised on Mondays and Thursdays of each week, the
thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth day of each lunar calendar month, and other recommended days in the Islamic year.

-Sadaqa fi Sabilillah - the giving of voluntary charity, however much and whenever one can afford, for the pleasure of Allah.
-The Umra - performance of the voluntary short pilgrimage.
In addition to the fard and their related nafl ibada, there are two further specific methods of
individual dhikr: the first is the daily recitation of the Quran, and the second, frequent dua or
supplications to Allah for forgiveness, guidance and fulfillment of needs.
Let us explore each of these specific methods pertaining to individual dhikr in more detail,
particularly as instruments of tazkiya and dhikr

A. Salat
Salat is the foremost form of ibada that Allah Himself has prescribed for us. In His own words He
commands: Establish regular Prayer that you may remember Me. [Ta Ha 20:14.] The whole purpose
of Salat is to be ever conscious of Allah, the Creator, Lord and Sustainer of all things. When we
perform Salat we involve our tongue, our heart, our mind and indeed our whole body. In this sense,
Salat is indeed, one of the most comprehensive forms of dhikr. It is perhaps for this reason that
Allah states in a hadith qudsi: `Out of all the ways through which My servant gets closer to Me, Salat
is the dearest to Me.' (Bukhari.) It is unfortunate, therefore, that we do not always take full
advantage of this gift. We may pray five times each day but few of us remain conscious for long that
in Prayer we have the best means to develop a strong connection with Allah. We may compare the
obligatory Salat to bathing five times a day. If after such frequent bathing, your body remains dirty,
then we may question the usefulness and efficacy of such bathing.
Similarly, if after regular observance of Prayer your heart remains unmoved, your morals remain
corrupt and your conduct remains unaffected, we may question the usefulness and efficacy of your
Prayer? If you enter into Salat and come out of it the same person, then you have missed
something, and you may have missed a golden opportunity to achieve something great.
Remember, though, Salat is an obligation. Whether your heart is attentive or not, it must be
performed. You cannot give up Prayer because to you it appears useless. Don't give up the
obligation but try to infuse it with the purpose it seeks to serve - remembrance of Allah.
How can you improve the quality of your Salat? Remember, first and foremost, that as soon as you
commence your Salat, Shaytan makes it his duty to fill your mind with anything and everything but
thoughts of Allah. [al-Araf 7: 16-17.] For, Shaytan is aware that your remembrance of Allah will
draw you closer to Him, so he tries ceaselessly to disengage your mind and heart from such
remembrance, so that you may never achieve that closeness. The most important hurdle to
overcome from the outset, therefore, is absentmindedness. It is this that destroys the quality of
your Prayer, for Allah does not accept the Prayers of a wandering mind. The Prophet Muhammad
said:
God does not accept the Prayers of an individual until his heart achieves in it what his body has
achieved. [Al-Ghazali in Ihya. See Inner Dimensions of Islamic Worship, Islamic Foundation, Leicester, p. 29.]
The ability to concentrate in Prayer may be improved by undertaking adequate psychological, mental
and physical preparation before the Prayer and by utilising certain techniques whilst performing the
Prayer. Below we discuss some of them.

i. Psychological and Mental Preparation
-The planning of your daily activities should revolve around the five daily Salat. [al-Ma'arij 70: 22-23.] Do not plan everything
else and then try to fit Prayer into your busy schedule.

-Ensure that you are conversant with all the rules and regulations governing your Prayer. Research in depth the Quranic verses
and ahadith relating to the virtues of Salat.

-Be punctual with your Prayer. [an-Nisa 4:103] Get into the habit of praying at the earliest hour. Do not procrastinate. The
Prophet said, `the deed most loved by Allah is Prayer performed on time.' (Muslim.)

-Pray as much of your fard Salat in jama'a or congregation as is possible. [al-Baqara 2: 43.]
-Avoid praying in a state in which you are mentally and physically fatigued. [an-Nisa 4: 43]
-Rid your mind of all evil thoughts and ideas. [al-Maun 107: 4-6.]
-Keep your mind free of worldly worries and engagements.
-Plan what ayat / duas you are going to recite.
-If you do not understand Arabic learn the meaning of what you recite in your Prayer.
-Remind yourself that engaging in Prayer offers you an opportunity to release yourself from the pressures and tensions of this
world. The Prophet has said that in Prayer was placed the comfort of his eyes. Therefore cherish the opportunity to remove the
shackles and burdens of this world from your shoulders. [al-Baqara 2: 45.]

-Use your Prayer to remain focused on your mission in life to bring your entire being to serve only Allah.
-Use your Prayer as a source of strength, inspiration and enthusiasm for your life and activities.

ii. Physical Preparation
-Fulfill all your personal needs before you commence your Prayer, for example, thirst, hunger and calls of nature.
-Pray in a pure physical state. Perform your wudu with care and perfection. [al-Maida 5: 6.]
-Although the whole earth is a masjid or a place of worship, choose a place that is clean.
-Pray in an environment free of noise and one where there is no distraction.
-Adorn yourself with clean and respectable clothes for Allah has said: O Children of Adam, wear your best clothes at every
place of worship. [al-Araf 7:31.]

iii. Performing Your Prayer
-Assess your mental readiness for Prayer before its commencement, during the various postures with its attendant recitations,
after each raka and ultimately at the end- Try to make improvements at each stage

-Pray with humility both in your mental state and in your physical manner. Pray with hope and awe, asking Allah for His
mercy and forgiveness.

-Remind yourself continually that you are talking to the most important `Being' in your life - your Creator and Sustainer. He is
in front of you. You are facing Him and you are involved in a dialogue with Him. [al-Alaq 96: 19.]

-Commence your Prayer by seeking Allah's help and protection from the influences of Shaytan. [an-Nahl 16: 98.]
-Lower your gaze while praying and do not allow the physical environment to distract you. Anas related that the Prophet said:
`My dear son, be sure to avoid being distracted during Prayer, for, to become distracted while praying is a disaster.'
(Tabarani.)

-Use a variety of Quranic verses and duas in your Prayer to achieve greater concentration and awareness.
-Adopt a whispering technique in your recitation. This will increase your ability to remain focused on what you are saying. [alIsra 17:110.]

-As you recite the Quran, translate it into your own language so that your attention is held. As you concentrate upon the
meaning and implications of the words, insha Allah, all thoughts of worldly ideas will disappear.

-On each occasion that you recite the Sifat or attributes of Allah in ruku and sajda, consider how indebted you are and how
grateful you should be to Allah and express your true emotions.

-Utilise the occasion of sajda to make additional dua to Allah. The Prophet said: ' A servant is nearest to his Lord when he is in
sajda, so increase your supplication when in sajda.' (Muslim.)

-Make your Prayer of moderate duration so that you do not become physically and mentally tired but be aware that while in
Prayer you must take your time praying.

-Give due regard to the proper performance of all the physical postures.
-Pray as if it is your last Prayer. The Messenger of God said: `When you stand up to pray, perform your prayer as if it were
your last, do not say anything you will have to make excuses for tomorrow, and resolve to place no hope in what is in the
hands of men.' (Ahmad.)
Performing your prayer in a satisfactory manner should lead to a radical change in the way you lead
your daily life. Salat must be as the Quran states: Surely, Salat prevents indecency and evil [alAnkabut 29: 45.] Your improved and more disciplined life will in turn help the quality of your Prayer
to increase even more. The two should feed one another and continuously reinforce each other.
Note that there is punishment for a Prayer not performed satisfactorily. It will be a witness against
you rather than a witness for you on the Day of Judgment. However, the reward for a Prayer well
performed is immeasurable. The Prophet said: `If a man performs two rakas of Salat without the
distraction of any worldly thought, all his previous sins will be forgiven.' (Bukhari.)

iv. Tahajjud Salat
Even though it is not obligatory, try to establish Tahajjud Salat as part of your nightly activities. The
Prophet said: `The best Prayer after the fard Prayer is the night Prayer.' (Muslim.)
One of the characteristics of the Ibadur Rahman or Servants of the Most Merciful, is that they get up
at night and perform Tahajjud Salat. [al-Furqan 25: 64] Qiyam al-layl or night vigil is a source of
great spiritual energy. The Prophet has said:
Keep up qiyam al-layl. It was the way of the virtuous who came before you, it draws you nearer to
your Lord, atones for your sins, forbids you from evil and protects the body from sickness.
(Tirmidhi.)
When a man wakes up his wife at night and they pray two rakas (units) together, they are written
down among the men and women who remember Allah. (Abu Dawud)
The Quran also commends the one who utilizes the early hours of each day to engage in
remembrance of Allah: Is one who worships devoutly during the hours of night prostrating himself or
standing [in adoration] and who places his hope in the mercy of His Lord - [like one who does not]?
Say: ‘Are those equal - those who know and those who do not know?’ It is those who are endowed
with understanding that receive admonition. [Az-Zumar 39:9]

B. Sawm
Sawm or fasting is another important instrument of tazkiya. It holds a unique status among all other
forms of ibada. In a hadith qudsi we are told:
Every good deed of a man is granted manifold increase, ten to seven hundred times. But Allah says:
Fasting is an exception; it is exclusively for Me, and I will give reward for it as much as I wish.
(Bukhari, Muslim.)
The fruit of fasting ought to be that rich inner quality which the Quran calls taqwa:
O Believers! Fasting is ordained for you, even as it was ordained for those before you, that you
might attain taqwa. [al-Baqara 2:183]
Taqwa is the most basic prerequisite for being guided by Allah. It entails God-consciousness, a sense
of responsibility, accountability, dedication and awe. It is that which prompts and inspires us to fulfill
our responsibilities towards the Creator. Taqwa is the main criterion by which Allah values the deeds
of a Muslim. The Quran states: Surely the noblest among you in the sight of God is the most Godfearing of you. Verily God is all-Knowing and all-Wise. [al-Hujurat 49: 13.]
We must strive to the utmost to inculcate taqwa in our lives as Allah has ordained: Take provisions
with you, but the best of provisions is taqwa. So remain conscious of Me, O you who are endowed
with insight. [al-Baqara 2:197]
Fasting teaches us to remember Allah. It helps to instill in us certain attributes and qualities which
develop our taqwa. We discuss some of these below.

i. Fulfilling Allah's Wishes
While fasting, the most basic physical needs - Food, water and sleep - are readily and joyfully
sacrificed. Hunger and thirst are no longer harmful; Allah's displeasure is harmful. Physical pleasures
no longer hold any lure; Allah's rewards do. The scale of values is turned upside down. The
measures of comfort and pain, success and failure are radically changed. However, whatever the
physical discomfort, the mortification of the flesh is certainly not the desired object. The gifts of Allah
are there to be enjoyed but limits by Him must also be strictly observed. Once the sun has set, the
fast must be broken and the sooner the better. All that was forbidden during the fasting hours, at
His command, becomes permissible again, at His command. Similarly, eating before dawn is strongly
encouraged even though the hour is early for it provides the necessary strength for the rigours of
the day ahead. Fasting and praying are obvious acts of worship but eating also constitutes a form of
worship.

ii. Willpower
Fasting strengthens our willpower. The Prophet has said: 'Sawm is a shield [or a screen or a shelter
from the Hell-fire].' (Bukhari.) The regime of dawn-to-sunset abstinence from food, drink and sex,
for the sake of Allah alone, internalises the lesson that we must never enter, acquire or even touch
that which does not belong to us under the law of Allah. A man can no longer remain a slave to his

own self-indulgence as he prepares for the arduous journey on the road to His Lord.
For many, it is difficult to see the value of long hours of hunger, thirst and sleeplessness.
Productivity losses are difficult to accept in an age that has tried to promote economic growth at all
costs. According to Islam, however, we are created to live a life of total submission to the One and
Only Allah, and this purpose must be paramount in all scales of values. Fasting is crucial to this
understanding. It shows that its purpose, like Allah's guidance through His Prophets and Books and
all the rituals of worship, is to train us how we must live totally and unreservedly in submission to
Allah.

iii. Protection From Shaytan
Fasting enables us to protect ourselves from the evil influences of Shaytan. While fasting: `Eyes
should refrain from seeing evil, ears from hearing evil, tongues from speaking evil and hearts from
reflecting evil.' (Bukhari.) The Prophet also said: `Five things break a man's fast: lying, backbiting,
scandal-mongering, perjury and a lustful gaze.' (Azdi.) [ Cited by al-Ghazali in Ihya Ulum al-Din. See Inner
Dimension of Islamic Worship, Islamic Foundation, Leicester, P. 76.]

C. Tilawa of the Quran
The most important nourishment for the qalb or heart is the Quran. Those who lived in the time of
the Prophet received their training and inspiration from the Quran. It was their guide, their light and
their leader. Likewise, it must be your constant companion.
The Quran contains a treasure house of soul-stirring inspiration and wisdom. We can and should
spend hours in understanding the Quran. There are thousands of pages of tafsir or Quranic exegesis
to read. But we must know that the real test of benefiting from the Quran lies somewhere else. The
Quran says that when people really listen to it, their faith must increase:
Believers are those who, when God is mentioned, feel a tremor in their heart, and whenever His
Messages are conveyed to them their faith is strengthened. [Al-Anfal 8: 2.]
Where there is a fire, there is smoke. If the `fire' of iman has been lit inside the heart, there must
be smoke, and you will see that those who truly listen to the Quran, their eyes begin to well up with
tears which trickle down their cheeks.
Nowadays, when we listen to the Quran or read it, our hearts are not moved, nor do our lives
change. It is as if water is felling on a rock and flowing away. Our task is to replace this hard rock
with soft absorbent soil so that the Quran may nourish the seed that has been planted. We should
always study the Quran as if it is being revealed to us today. One of the greatest injustices we do to
the Quran is that we read it as if it were something of the past and of no relevance to the present.
Remember that the whole purpose of the man is to guide you and to change you by bringing you
into submission to Allah. As you read it, also try to live by what it invites you to. If it does not have
any impact upon your actions and if you do not observe what it enjoins and avoid what it prohibits,
then you are not getting anywhere nearer the Quran. In fact, one who reads the Quran and does not
try to act upon it may be more likely to be cursed and punished by Allah. The Prophet said:
Many of the hypocrites in my Umma will be from among the reciters. (Ahmad.)
He is not a Believer in the Quran who makes halal or lawful what has been made haram or
prohibited. (Tirmidhi.)
It is also narrated that many Companions, like Uthman and Abdullah ibn Masud, once they learnt ten
verses from the Prophet did not move further unless they had `learnt' it fully both in understanding
and in action; that is how they sometimes spent years in learning only one sura or chapter.
If you sincerely start changing your life according to the Quran, Allah will certainly help you and
make the path easy for you. Allah reassures us in the Quran:
Those who say, `Our Lord is Allah,' and continue upon the straight way, the angels descend upon
them: Do not fear, nor be grieved, and receive glad tidings of the Garden which you were promised.
We are your supporters in this world and in the Hereafter. And for you therein is whatever your souls
desire, and for you therein is whatever you ask for.' [al-Fussilat 41:30-31.]

i. The Method of Tilawa

Tilawa or recitation is an act in which your whole person - soul, heart, mind, tongue and body should participate. Thus, to recite the Quran, as it deserves to be recited, is not a light task; but
neither is it impossible nor difficult. Otherwise, the Quran could not have been meant for everyone;
nor could it be the mercy and the guidance that it surely is. There are a few obligations regarding
recitation of the Quran which you should keep in mind.

-Read the Quran every day; in fact do not consider a day complete without it. It is better to read regularly, even if it be a small
portion, than to read large sections, but only occasionally.

-Everyday you must also find time to memorise as much of the Quran as you can. You can start with small Suras and short
passages and then move on to longer portions.

-Read as much of the Quran in Prayer as you can, especially during the night, after the Isha, before the Fajr and in the Fajr, as
nothing is more effective in making you attuned to the Quran and ensuring you absorb it than reading it in the night or in the
morning. Indeed, the early hours of the morning is a particularly blessed time to recite the Quran: Indeed, the recitation of the
Quran at dawn is ever witnessed. [al-Isra 17:78]

-Read the Quran in a good voice, as we have been told: `Beautify the Quran with your voices' (Abu Dawud); but also remember
that the real beauty is the beauty that comes with the fear of Allah in the heart: `His recitation and voice are the most beautiful
so that when you hear him, you think he fears Allah.' (Darimi.)

-Read the Quran with concentration and understanding. The Prophet told Ibn Umar not to finish reading the Quran in less than
a week He also said that one who finishes it in less than three days does not understand any of it. One companion said that he
preferred to read a short Sura like al-Qaria with proper understanding than to hastily finish long ones like al-Baqara and AlImran.

ii. Your Constant Companion
The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, has said, `I am leaving you with two murshids.' The
term murshid refers to the one who guides to the right path. The first is the talking murshid, the
Quran, mid the second is the silent murshid, mawt or death. As much as you keep in touch with the
Quran and as long as you keep in touch with the idea that you are going to return to Allah and give
an account of your actions, so you will stay on the right path. You don't need any other training
programme or another `person' to guide you. These two murshids are enough and everyone has
them at his disposal.

D. Dua
Dua, supplicating to Allah, is `the spirit of ibada.' (Tirmidhi.) Indeed, it is a demand of Islam. The
Prophet has exhorted us: `Allah is angry with him who does not ask [anything] from Him.' (Tirmidhi)
Each of your duas must capture the spirit of your goals and ambitions. You must offer them with
humility and sincerity. The Prophet Muhammad has taught us some of the most beautiful
supplications - said in beautiful words, encapsulating beautiful ideas, through beautiful ways of
asking. Reflect upon the following dua as an example:
I am Your servant, I am at Your door. I am a poor man, I am at Your door. I am a helpless man, I
am at Your door. I am a sinner, I am at Your door. l am Your guest, You invited me to come, I am at
Your door. So have mercy on me.
There are many similar duas that move the heart and make tears flow from one's eyes. Additionally,
there are duas that were part of the Prophet's daily routine: Prayers said while eating, drinking,
sleeping, entering and leaving home. All of these duas must be memorised and utilised, for they
remind us of Allah and His Omniscience.
But how exactly can these duas be used by us to remember Allah? Allow me to share with you one
method, which can be utilised on a daily basis. The Prophet Muhammad taught us in one hadith:
After performing the dawn [Subh] Prayer, before you utter another word, say: O Allah, save me
from Hell-fire [Allahumma ajirni min an-nar], seven times. If you die that day, Allah will decree that
you be saved from Hell-fire. After performing the sunset [Maghrib] Prayer, before you utter another
word, say: O Allah, save me from Hell-fire, seven times. If you die that night, Allah will decree that
you be saved from Hell-fire- (Abu Dawud.)
Whenever I recite this dua, I use a method of recitation and reflection which helps me remember the
final meeting with my Lord. For each of the seven times I recite this dua, I reflect on one of the
stages from the Quran of the Akhira: the time of death; the sojourn and questioning by the angel in
the grave; the time of rising and standing before Allah; the time of giving an account of all that has
been done and seeing our actions displayed before us; and the passage over the Sirat or Bridge,
then entering either Paradise or Hell.
All of these are stages of the journey. Each time that I bring to my mind one of those stages, even
for the briefest moment, I supplicate to Him: `O Allah save me from the fire'.
This exercise in supplication takes me about five minutes after both Salat al-Fajr and Salat alMaghrib. There is, however, no prescribed format to follow. You can select and form your own short
course of duas based on the Prophetic traditions and use this as part of the regular way in which you
remember Allah.
Finally, it is important for us to observe the etiquette of dua so that we may derive maximum benefit
from them. These have been beautifully summarised by Imam al-Nawawi, where he lists ten prime
conditions and dispositions that we should observe:

-Seek out the blessed times of Prayer: The Day of the Standing on the plain of Arafat [during Hajj]; the month of fasting
[Ramadan]; Fridays [days of congregational prayers]; and during the night [especially the last third of it].

-Seek out the blessed moments for Prayer when the heart is receptive and tender: immediately after the five daily prescribed
Prayers; between the call to Prayer (adhan) and the final call to Prayer (iqama); when breaking fast; while on the field of
battle; when rainfall occurs; and when bowing down [sujud] in Prayer, for the Prophet said, `The worshipper is closest to his
Lord while bowing down. So pray much then.' (Muslim.)

-Face the direction of Makka and raise the hands [with palms spread upward] to the level of the shoulders.
-Voice supplications in a moderate tone that is neither too loud nor too soft.
-Prayers need not be said in a forced rhymed prose [an often natural form in Arabic].
-Implore God with humility and reverence.
-Be fervent in Prayer and optimistic of the answer. Sufyan ibn Uyayna stated: What a person knows of himself should never
stop him from supplicating to God for He answered the most evil creatures, Iblis [Shaytan], when he said, `Give me respite
until the Day they are resurrected. God said, You are of the respired ones.' [al-Araf 7: 14.]

-Repeat requests, preferably three times, and don't be impatient or despondent in waiting for an answer.
-Begin supplication with the mention of God [His Names, praises and attributes] before asking of Him, and entreat God to send
His blessings and peace upon the Prophet.

-Strive for inner purity with repentance and sincere devotion.

E. Istighfar and tawba
The process of dhikr must involve the recognition and confession of our faults, mistakes and
aberrations and turning to Allah in asking for forgiveness with the expectation of his rahma or
mercy. Istighfar is seeking forgiveness while tawba is taming away from our faults and returning to
Allah, to His Path. When Allah desires good for a Believer, He gives him awareness of his faults. The
Messenger of Allah when questioned about the nature of virtue and sin replied: `Virtue is to have
good morals, sin is what pricks your heart and you dislike what people come to know about it.'
(Muslim.) Likewise, whenever we are faced with a dilemma or uncertainty in our daily life we have
been exhorted by the Prophet to observe the following guidelines:
Seek a verdict from your heart Virtue is that which your soul and heart feel satisfied with. Sin is that
which troubles the soul and about which the heart is uneasy and confused, even though people may
give their legal opinions in its favour. (Muslim.)
But what exactly does the process of istighfar and tawba entail? Ali ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be
pleased with him, once saw a Bedouin repeating words of repentance in a great hurry. `This is fake
repentance', remarked Ali ibn Abi Talib. The Bedouin asked, `What is true repentance?' Ali ibn Abi
Talib explained that there are six elements in an act of true repentance:

-You should regret what has happened.
-You should discharge the duty which you have neglected.
-You should restore the right that you have misappropriated.
-You should apologise to the one whom you have caused injury.
-You should resolve not to repeat the act.
-You should dedicate yourself entirely to the service of Allah so that you may experience the rigours of obedience as you may
have relished the pleasure of transgression.
We may now ask the question - when is the best time during the course of the day to perform
istighfar? There is of course no special time to seek the forgiveness of Allah. But perhaps one of the
best occasions is the early hours of each day which the Quran declares is the time utilised by true
Believers to draw closer to their Lord: they forsake their beds to cry unto their Lord in fear and hope.
[as-Sajda 32: 16.] The significance of this early part of each day has also been explained by the
Prophet as follows:
Our Lord descends every night to the nearest Heaven when only the last third of the night remains,
and says: `Is anyone praying that I may answer him? Is anyone seeking forgiveness that I may
forgive him? Is anyone asking that I may give to him?' And this continues until dawn. (Tirmidhi.)
You should therefore start each day by taking an account of yourself: seek forgiveness for the
wrongs you have done and make the intention not to repeat these mistakes. In this way you shall
become free from these sins. Every day you may commit a sin, but if every day you come sincerely
to Allah, then every day He will forgive you. Such is His love and blessings for us. Allah reminds us:
When My servants ask you concerning Me, I am indeed close [to them]. I listen to the prayer of

every supplicant when he calls on Me. Let them also, with a will, listen to My call, and believe in Me
so that they may walk in the right way. [al-Baqara 2: 186.]
While seeking the forgiveness of Allah, you must place your full trust and confidence in Allah for He
always listens and answers the Prayers of His servants. In one hadith qudsi, Allah has reassured us:
Son of Adam, so long as you keep calling upon Me and hoping for good from Me, I shall forgive you
whatever you have done, and I do not mind. Son of Adam, were your sins to rise as high as the sky,
and were you to ask Me for forgiveness, I would forgive you. Son of Adam, were you to come to Me
with sins as large as would fill the earth, and meet Me having ascribed no partner to Me, I would
bring you forgiveness as great as your sins. (Tirmidhi.)

4. Methods of Collective Dhikr
A. Seeking the company of the righteous
Dhikr can also be performed collectively. The Prophet told us that the baraka or blessing of Allah is
with those who gather and work as a unified jama'a for the cause of Islam: 'Allah's hand is upon the
jama'a.' (Tirmidhi.) Indeed engaging in remembrance of Allah collectively is encouraged in many
ahadith. The Prophet is reported to have said:
If a group of people sit together remembering Allah, the angels will circle them, mercy will shroud
them, peace will descend onto them and Allah will remember them among those with Him. (Muslim.)
Dhikr in a group may help teach those who do not know the desired adhkar and bring hearts
together and strengthen their noble ties. To ensure that our company is always filled with
remembrance of Allah, it is of paramount importance that we continuously seek the company of the
righteous if we wish to be elevated in the eyes of Allah. Hasan al-Basri said in this regard:
Sit in the company of scholars. They will be pleased to see your virtues and will forgive your
mistakes. They will not rebuke you when you commit mistakes; rather, they will provide clear
guidance. When it is necessary to testify, they will bear true testimony to your advantage.
You must be careful with the selection of friends, for your companionship can and must be a form of
dhikr. The Messenger of God said: `The best friend is the one who makes you remember Allah when
you see him.' Also: 'Whosoever Allah wishes good for, He will grant him a righteous friend who will
remind him if he forgets and aid him if he remembers'. And the Quran says: Bind yourself with those
who call upon Allah morning and evening. [al-Kahf 18: 27-28.] As soon as you see the seed of iman
planted in your heart and you recognise it in someone else's and you find that he agrees with you,
you will feel ten times stronger. Social scientists have also discovered that group life is one of the
most powerful forces to stimulate and improve the human being.

B. Witnessing Unto Mankind
Life can only be filled with dhikr if you strive and invite others to the path of Allah, the same path
that you have found. This is a necessary outcome of your faith in Allah. The Quran advises: Make it
[the truth] known to mankind, and do not conceal it! [Ali Imran 3: 187] Help one another to
righteousness and taqwa and do not help one another to sin and transgression. [al-Maida 5:2]
Encourage one another in the truth, and encourage one another in patience [al-Asr 103: 3.] Remind
[others of the truth] in the event that this admonition profits. Tire reminder will be received by he
who stands in awe [of God]. [al-Ala 87: 9-10.]
As your iman increases, you will yearn to share with everybody what you think and know is right and
call upon them to join your mission and the jama'a for who is better in speech than one who calls to
God acts righteously and says: I am of those who surrender [unto Him].' [al-Fussilat 41: 33.]
Moreover, as the jama'a grows, your commitment to Allah will grow as well, each reinforcing the
other. That is how the whole of life will become integrated in finding a path to Allah.

ORGANISING YOUR DHIKR
To benefit fully from all of the specific methods of dhikr whether individual or collective that we have
discussed, you must strive to implement them in a daily programme of devotions, study and
reflection. Set aside some periods each day to devote yourself completely to these tasks and do not
allow anything to interfere with them. Spending even a small amount of time each day will bring
within you a feeling of closeness to Allah and familiarity with His Din or way of life.
You should begin each day with some dhikr after Salat al-Fajr and make the intention that your
whole day will be spent in serving Allah. Follow up the dhikr with a dua seeking provisions for the
day. Allah Himself has exhorted us in the Quran:
O you who believe, celebrate the praises of Allah and do so often; Glorify Him in the morning and
the evening. [al-Ahzab 33:41.]
After the dhikr and dua spend some time reciting, memorising and studying passages from the
Quran for indeed the reading [of the Quran] at Fajr as witnessed. [al-Isra 17:78] If it is not possible
to perform this task just after your Fajr Prayer then you may do it later, but you should make an
effort to ensure that no day passes by without at least some reading and study of the Quran.
Allocate some time also to study from a comprehensive syllabus which covers all the major aspects
of Islam including Quran and hadith sciences, Sharia or Islamic law, Fiqh or Islamic jurisprudence,
Sira or the life history of the Prophet Muhammad and Islamic history.
Perhaps the best way to learn about Islam is to learn from those who have more knowledge than
you. You should therefore strive to attend Islamic study circle sessions, camps and courses
whenever you can. At the same time, as much as you learn and improve your understanding of
Islam, do not forget your obligations towards your family and those around you. Set aside a period
also to teach them about Islam.
As night falls just after the Salat al-Maghrib, it is again recommended to make dhikr, seeking
protection for the coming night. And then to complete the day, just before retiring, reflect on what
you have accomplished - where you have succeeded and where you have failed. As for your
successes thank Allah that He has enabled you to do whatever you may have accomplished. For your
failures, you must ask for His forgiveness with humility and sincerity. Close the day with Prayers for
help and guidance to overcome your weaknesses and to develop your strengths.

SUMMARY
Your salvation and true success lies in the purification of your heart. The key to gaining a sound
heart is remembrance of Allah.
There are basically two forms of dhikr. The first involves continuous and sustained inner awareness
of Allah in all that we say and do in our daily lives through development of certain states of
consciousness. They include a continuous realisation that Allah knows everything, that everything
you possess has been given to you by Him; that He has power and control over everything; and
ultimately, that you are going to return to Him. The second involves specific methods of dhikr, some
of which may be performed individually and others which must be done collectively. Each of these

specific methods helps to develop the other. When they are implemented in an organised
programme of daily devotions, they will, Insha Allah, lead to a life of continuous remembrance of
Allah.
May Allah enable us all to remember Him often and much and may He enable our hearts to find the
satisfaction that we seek for without doubt in the remembrance of Allah hearts do find satisfaction.
[ar-Rad 13:38.]

CHAPTER THREE: Relating to Allah

EACH day in our Salat, we repeatedly make one humble request to Allah, our Creator and Sustainer:
`Guide us the Straight Way.' (al-Fatiha 1:4) It is only by seeking and staying on the Straight Way,
that we can ever hope to attain true salvation and success. What then must we do to ensure that
Allah accepts and grants our Prayer? The Quran explains: Whosoever holds on to Allah, he has
already been guided onto a Straight Way. [Al-Imran 3:101]

CHARACTERISTICS OF `HOLDING ONTO ALLAH'
What exactly is itisam billah or `holding onto Allah'? How do we develop a close attachment to and a
close relationship with Allah? Let us explore the answers to these questions by reflecting upon the
characteristics needed to `hold onto Allah' and thus be among those who are shown the Sirat alMustaqim or the Straight Way.

1. Thankfulness to Allah
The first characteristic is being ever grateful and thankful to Allah for everything that you possess
including your wealth, health, status, intellectual abilities and life. You should recognise that your
very existence and your continuing sustenance are dependent on Allah. Whatever praise is due,
therefore, it is due to Him alone, for nobody has the power or the resources to give you anything
except by His will. His bounties and blessings are countless. Allah says:
Is, then, He who creates comparable to any that cannot create? Will you not, then, take heed? For
should you try to count Allah's blessings, you could never compute them. Allah is, indeed, All
forgiving, All compassionate; and Allah knows all that you keep secret as well as all that you bring
into the open. [an-Nahl 16:17-19]
It is for this reason that Allah commanded the Prophet Ibrahim to say: It is He who has created me,
and so it is He who guides me; it is He who gives me to eat and drink, and whenever I am sick it is
He who heals me; and it is He who makes me die and then will bring me to life. And upon Him, l pin
my hope that He would forgive my sins on the Day of Judgment. [ash-Shuara 26:77-82.]
In many places in the Quran, Allah compares the terms shukr and kufr. [al-Baqara 2:152, Luqman
31: 12]. Iman implies shukr or gratefulness as opposed to kufr or ungratefulness. A kafir or
unbeliever is ungrateful to the Being who has given him everything, whereas a mumin or Believer is
one who is ever thankful for all that Allah has given him, for he recognises that his Lord is Merciful
and Loving. [Hud 11:90.]
Iman, therefore, requires due praise and thanks to Allah. If you are ungrateful, Allah is unaffected. If
you become grateful, then you have taken the first step towards becoming a true Believer. It is for
this reason that the Prophet exhorted us to `love Allah as we benefit from His grace'. (Tirmidhi.)
In every moment and in every situation we see our Creator and Sustainer actively involved. He has

not retired from this world. He is on His throne creating, distributing and administering everything.
He governs and sustains all in the Universe. Not even a leaf can fall without His knowledge, His
permission and His command. The Quran declares:
He knows all that enters the earth and all that emerges therefrom, and that which comes down from
the sky and all that ascends therein; and He is with you wherever you may be. [al-Hadid 57: 4.]
Everything that happens to us - even events that we may consider to be personal afflictions or
natural disasters-'are from Him. So even in times of calamity and distress, there will be some good
for us, provided we respond appropriately. The Prophet said:
How wonderful is the case of a Believer! There is good for him in whatever happens to him -and
none, apart from him, enjoys this blessing. If he receives some bounty, he is grateful to Allah and
this bounty brings good to him. And if some adversity befalls him, he is patient, and this affliction,
too, brings good to him. (Muslim.)
Look again at the Quran, you will see that the very first introduction to Allah is ar-Rahman ar-Rahim.
[al-Fatiha 1:1.] Allah Himself is saying that He is the Most Merciful, He is the Most Compassionate.
He shows and gives mercy to all, even those who continue to be ungrateful and rebellious towards
Him: Indeed God is the possessor of bounty for all people but most people do not give thanks. [alBaqara 2: 243.]
Reflect upon your own life and you will find innumerable occasions when Allah's `hand' has been
holding you and helping you. So often, we subconsciously use the expression `thank God for this
and that', without realising the full implications of our words. The Quran even reminded the Prophet
Muhammad, peace be upon him, that in his early life, Allah's `hand' was holding him and guiding
him:
Did He not find you an orphan and gave you shelter [and care]? And He found you wandering and
He gave you guidance. And He found you in need and made you independent. Therefore, treat not
the orphan with harshness, nor repulse him who asks. [ad-Duha 93: 6-10.]
This exhortation is not only for the Prophet but for all people. From the moment that we open our
eyes in this world until the moment our souls leave our bodies, and even beyond, Allah's mercy,
compassion and protection remain with us. Continuously remind yourself then that your entire
existence is dependent on Him. He is your Lord and Sustainer. He is nourishing and sustaining all
that exists. From morning until evening, your tongue must be moist with continuous praise of Allah.
In return, Allah has promised increased rahma or mercy for you: If you are grateful, I will surely
give you more and more. [Ibrahim 14:7]
This is the cornerstone of your faith and the Islamic way of life. If you learn this first lesson, you will
begin the process of `holding onto Allah'. And whoever is grateful, he is only grateful for the benefit
of his own self. [Luqman 31:12] for surely if it was not for the grace of God on you and His mercy,
you would have been among the losers. [al-Baqara 2:64].

2. Worshipping Allah
Out of that sense of receiving everything from Allah, comes another important character trait of
those who `hold onto Allah' exclusive worship of Allah. The Quran states that true taqwa cannot be
attained until all your actions in life are done exclusively to earn the pleasure of Allah:
O mankind, worship your Lord alone, who has created you and those before you, so that you may
attain taqwa or righteousness. [al-Baqara 2:21]
You must ensure that your qalb or heart submits totally and wholeheartedly to the Creator. Allah
says: O you who believe! Enter into Islam wholeheartedly, without reservation. [al-Baqara 2: 208.]
The only [true] way in the sight of Allah is Islam [submission to the will of God]. [Ali Imran 3: 85.]
Your qalb cannot be compartmentalised. You cannot dedicate one piece of it to Allah and another to
some other god, like wealth, status, career, spouse and so on.
There is a beautiful verse in the Quran which throws light on the absurdity of such a situation. It tells
about some of the mushrikin or idol worshippers who sacrifice animals and then say that one part of
the animal is for Allah and another is for their idols. The verse then states quite clearly that
whatever is assigned to Allah is also, in reality, assigned to the idols, for Allah does not accept
something divided between Him and others. He is One, indivisible and wants the human being to be
undivided in service to Him. So long as our heart lies in a hundred places, so long as our eyes are
set in a hundred directions, so long as we have many loyalties, we shall never be able to achieve
that condition of 'holding onto Allah'.
Why should we allow divided loyalties to capture parts of our heart? Nothing in this world is going to
be of use to us when we breathe our last, however hard we may have striven for it and however
valuable it may seem to us. We must recognise that the prizes we seek are not the worldly
possessions received from human beings like ourselves. It is only our Creator who can put a real
value on our striving and bestow on us a real reward. Shall I tell you of a business that will deliver
you from a tormenting punishment? [as-Saff 61:10] This 'business' amounts to you committing your
whole undivided being to Allah alone, and selling yourself in order to earn His pleasure.

Sincerity in Worship
What does it mean to do everything fi sabilillah, for the sake of Allah, which should be the crux and
substance of our lives? People are in the habit of classifying life's activities into those which are
mundane and those which are religious. Remember, though, only those things done for the sake of
Allah are the 'religious' things. Everything that is done for other than Allah however 'religious' it may
seem - is a worldly act. If a person prays ostentatiously, it is a worldly act; if he fasts to expose his
spirituality it is a worldly act; but if he earns thousands of pounds to support his family and to spend
for the cause of Islam, seeking only Allah's pleasure, it is a highly spiritual act. The Prophet
reminded us:
Many people fast but gain nothing from their fasting except hunger and thirst; and many people
pray all night but gain nothing from their night Prayers except sleeplessness. (Darimi.)

What is of most importance to us is not the outward form of our actions. Although we perform all our
duties and conform to all the protocols, it is the sincerity of purpose and intention behind our actions
that really matters. The Prophet Muhammad, upon whom be peace, emphatically stated: 'Actions are
judged only by intentions and everyone shall have what he intended.' (Bukhari, Muslim.)
Remember that purpose and intention are like the soul of a body or the inner capability of a seed.
Many seeds look alike, but as they begin to grow and bear fruit, their differences become manifest.
The purer and higher the motive, the greater the value and yield of your efforts. For all your daily
actions, remind yourself of the motives behind your deeds. This may be the best way to ensure the
purity and exclusiveness of purpose and intention.

3. Love of Allah
The next character trait of those who 'hold onto Allah' is that they love Allah. The Quran says that
those who have iman, love Allah more than anything else. [al-Baqara 2:165.] It does not say that
one must love only Allah. Love is a blessing given to us by Allah and is manifested in many aspects
of life. In Islam, however, it must be foremost for Allah, our Creator and Sustainer.
What is love? Perhaps it cannot be defined in terms which adequately reflect its nature and
importance in a person's life. It is not possible to define it by a formula in a manner we define a
scientific fact. But still each one of us knows what love is and can tell from our own experience the
powerful force that it is. It is the overpowering force in life. It captivates you, it grips you, it moves
you and you are prepared to do anything for the sake of it. Once love is there, what you do is not
something which has to be imposed upon you, because you need imposition only for the things you
do not love. Iman is something which must penetrate deep into your heart and generate love for
Allah and His Prophet more than anything else. Unless this happens, you cannot experience the real
iman.
To develop this love for Allah does not require us to retire to or seclude ourselves in a monastery.
This love makes us do our duty to Allah while we are out in the street, at home or in the office. With
this love, we live as servants of Allah everywhere, willingly making every sacrifice required of us. In
fact, it propels us to share actively in the service of Allah's other creatures. True love of Allah makes
us care for people and their needs.
Whether or not you have that love is something for you to examine closely. If you love someone,
one of your most intense desires will be to get closer to that person. In Islam, you have a way in
which you can get closer to Allah and talk to Him and that way is through Salat. The Prophet said
that when a person performs Salat, he actually comes nearer to Allah and talks to Him. If you look
at how you pray five times a day, you will have a barometer in your hand to find out how much you
love Allah.
Once you are praying to Him, you are in front of Him, you are near to Him, you are talking to Him,
you are responding to Him in gratitude and you are asking for His forgiveness. Prayer is not just a
ritual in which you go through certain postures. The soul has to surrender itself exclusively to Allah
and love Him. This love is like a seed which, as it grows, envelops the entire personality.

Ihsan - The Essence of Worship
To entice us to remember Him and to love Him even more, Allah has used the beautiful words in the
Quran: Wajh Allah or the Face of Allah. He says:
All that is on earth will perish, but the Face of your Lord will abide forever - Full of Majesty, Bounty
and Honour. [ar-Rahman 55:26-27]
Everything on this earth will perish except the `Face' of your Lord. His is the `Face' you must desire.
The expression `Face of Allah' does not, of course, mean that Allah has a face like ours. But, again,
if you love someone, you desire to look upon his face all the time, you always want to be in his
company and you will make all the necessary sacrifices to earn his pleasure. So, when the Quran

uses the expression `Face of Allah' it is really to make us conscious that Allah is looking at us and
we should do the things which will please Him and abstain from things which will displease Him.
Thus, when the Prophet was questioned about the true meaning of ihsan, he replied:
Ihsan is that you worship and serve Allah as though you are seeing Him; for even though you do not
see Him, He surely sees you. (Bukhari, Muslim.)
If you continuously remind yourself that Allah is looking at you when you are praying, when you are
studying, when you are doing your job, when you are with your family and friends, when you are
involved in dawa - then you are well on your way to attaining ihsan, the most excellent form of
worship. Ihsan takes us to the highest station of nearness to Allah. This is what gives real worth to
everything we do and makes our actions acceptable in the eyes of our Creator and Sustainer.

4. Becoming Hanif
Those who `hold onto Allah' must also strive to become hanif Literally translated, it refers to one
who is inclined or one who cuts himself away from everything that is false and belongs only to Allah.
The term is used in the Quran in ten places, six times with reference to the Prophet Ibrahim, on
whom be peace, and the rest for any one who is sincere and sound in faith. The term connotes
sincerity, uprightness and single-mindedness in one's dedication and commitment to Allah.

A. The model of Ibrahim
The example of a hanif is beautifully expressed in the life of Prophet Ibrahim, on whom be peace. Let
us ponder upon two of his outstanding qualities.

B. Love for Allah
Ibrahim loved Allah. He forsook all loyalties and obedience to any object other than Allah. He said: ‘I
have turned my face [my entire being] to Him who is the Creator of the heavens and earth, having
turned away from all else.' [al-Anam 6: 79.]
He brought his entire life and being under Allah's rule, ensuring that he worshipped Him with heart
and body. Ibrahim understood that Allah must rule everywhere: in homes as well as in hearts, in
manners as well as in minds, in public life as in private. For him, the decision to surrender was
personal and free. A ceaseless striving towards that end became the substance of his life so much so
that Allah endowed him with the worthy title, Khalil Allah or Friend of God. [an-Nisa 4: 125] With
utmost devotion and concentration, Ibrahim supplicated:
My Prayer and all my acts of worship, my living and my dying are for Allah alone, the Lord of all the
worlds. He has no associate: Thus I have been commanded and I am foremost among those who
surrender themselves unto Him. [al-Anam 6:162].

C. Complete trust in Allah
Ibrahim was tried and tested in every, conceivable way. Whenever His Lord called upon him to
surrender, he would readily respond: `I surrender to the Lord of all the worlds.' [al-Baqara 2:131]
`If you want me to go into the fire and be burnt alive, 1 am ready for that! If you want me to leave
my home, I am ready for that! If you want me to take my son and wife and put them in a place
where there is no shelter, no food and no one to protect them, I am ready for that! And if you want
me to make the supreme sacrifice and put a knife to the throat of that which I love best, my son, I
am ready for that!'
It is following his footsteps that millions of people go to the Baytullah, the House of Allah, during the
Hajj echoing the words of Ibrahim:
Here I am, O Lord, here I am!
Here I am; no partner hast Thou; here 1 am!
Surely to Thee is all Praise, all Goodness and all Sovereignty;
No partner has Thou!

Labbayk! Allahumma Labbayk! I am here! O Allah I am at Your command! I am always at your
command! I am always ready to surrender! I am always ready to sacrifice!
Ibrahim accepted Allah as the only Lord and the only source of guidance. He had absolute conviction
in the commandments of Allah. He was prepared to surrender and sacrifice everything at a
moment's notice without any hesitation whatsoever. His tawakkul or trust in Allah was absolute. His
example is reminiscent of the verse in the Quran: If anyone puts his trust in Allah, sufficient is
[Allah] for him. [at-Talaq 65:3]
To become true servants of Allah, we must continuously echo and abide by the words of the Quran:
Hasbunallah wa nimal Wakil [Allah is sufficient for us and He is the best Provider] [Al-Imran 3:173]
in every circumstance of our lives.
To bec